Tingko Beach

Tingko Beach is a popular getaway located in Daan Lungsod, Alcoy in Cebu, Philippines. It is situated in a small but deep lagoon across a coral island, called Mabad-on Reef, which is completely submerged during high tide and exposed during low tide. It is separated only by a very narrow channel from the mainland. Tingko Beach is characterised as an extensive stretch of arcing shoreline, approximately more than a mile long with very white sand and crystal clear water fringed with coconut palm grooves and limestone cliffs. A few feet from the shore the sea floor gradually plunges down to a depth of several feet below the surface.

A few meters beyond the northern reach of Tingko Beach stands the centuries-old Spanish-built Bantayan sa Hari (watch tower) on a promontory. Nearby are charming white houses, a row of beautiful white-washed houses over craggy shores, specially built for out-of-towners who want to stay in town temporarily for a short vacation with minimal fee. The beach also has crude huts with running water and toilet facilities. Camping is also possible on the beach where you can bring along tents for more fun and enjoyment.

The beach can be crowded during weekends where locals and city folks, and occasionally, foreigners, flock to enjoy the beautiful sand, sea and sun. Due to its unique location, being an arcing shoreline on a lagoon, the sand in the southernmost end of the beach would shift northward during the northeast winter monsoon season, sometime between late September and early December, thereby emptying the sand completely out exposing the rocky bed of the shore. The sand would return quickly starting in late December. The beach is conspicuously hidden out of sight when viewed from the road as it is situated down below a low limestone cliff. The KM 95 marker indicates the distance of the beach from the city. Most of the beach front property is owned by Roslyn Maria Roy a native of car-car, cebu and her husband Andrew and their 2 daughters Noelle and Danielle Roy.

Philippine Eagle

The Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) is one of the rarest, largest and most powerful birds in the world. This bird of prey, or raptor, belongs to the family Accipitridae. It is also known as "Haribon" or "Haring Ibon," meaning "Bird King."

This eagle's head is adorned with long brown feathers that give it the appearance of a lion's mane. The upperside of the Philippine Eagle is brown, the underside white; the heavy legs are yellow with large, powerful claws; the prominent large, high-arched, deep bill is a bluish-gray, with blue-gray eyes. The average female is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) long, weighs about 7 kg (15.5 lb), and has a wingspan of 2 meters (6.7 feet). This makes the Philippine Eagle one of the world's largest eagles, with the largest wing surface area. The Harpy Eagle and Steller's Sea Eagle are about the same size as this species. The adult male is about 10-20% smaller and averages at about 5 kg (11 lbs). The life expectancy for the Philippine Eagle is around 30-60 years.

The Philippine Eagle can be found in rainforests of four major Philippine islands - Luzon, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao; the largest number of eagles reside on Mindanao.

Politics of the Philippines

The political system in the Philippines takes place in an organized framework of a presidential, representative, and democratic republic whereby the president is both the head of state and the head of government within a pluriform multi-party system. This system revolves around three separate and sovereign yet interdependent branches: the legislative branch (the law-making body), the executive branch (the law-enforcing body), and the judicial branch (the law-interpreting body). Executive power is exercised by the government under the leadership of the president. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two-chamber congress -- the Senate (the upper chamber) and the House of Representatives (the lower chamber). Judicial power is vested in the courts with the Supreme Court of the Philippines as the highest judicial body.

It is believed that Philippine political parties share one common platform. However, it is also perceived that Philippine political parties are also not based on political platform, but rather on personality. Turncoatism is so widespread that there were moves from lawmakers in the past to make this illegal, since it is believed that switching party allegiances are easy in Philippine politics. The image of turncoatism among politicians also fuels the belief that many Philippine politicians are opportunist, using their political power for personal gain.


Tinikling is a Filipino folk dance. The dance originated in Leyte as an imitation of the legendarily fast and graceful movements of the tikling birds as they dodged bamboo traps set by rice farmers. An alternative explanation says that the dance originated from Spanish colonization, where field workers who worked too slowly were punished by having to stand in place and jump over two bamboo poles clapped together against their ankles; it is said that from a distance the jumping workers looked like tikling birds. This dance is mistakenly coined as the national dance of the Philippines due to its popularity. However, tha national dance is actually the Cariñosa.

In recent times, especially at the Pilipino Cultural Night (PCN) level, the dance has been modernized to cater to younger generations of Filipino-Americans. For example, sometimes clappers move around in circles while the dancers move with the poles. Other variations consist of four people holding a pair of bamboo in a tic-tac-toe like pattern; this form of the dance would usually travel in a circular pattern, increasing the difficulty of staying on rhythm. The poles may be repositioned during the dance in order to create new patterns, and it is not uncommon to have the dancers and pole-handlers switch places in more complicated choreographies. When pole clappers and dancers switch, the goal is to try to switch places without stopping the rhythm of the poles being clapped. Furthermore, blindfolds, candles, passing/throwing/exchanging of bamboo poles, and hip-hop style movements have also been incorporated to add excitement, but at the same time, adding false representation of the dance.

Education in the Philippines

Education in the Philippines has a similar system to that of the United States. Filipino children enter public school at about age four, starting from Nursery up to Kindergarten. At about seven years of age, children enter a 'primary school' (6 to 7 years). This is followed by secondary school (4 years). Students then sit for the College Entrance Examinations (CEE), after which they enter collegiate school (3 to 5 years). Other types of schools do exist, such as Private schools, Preparatory schools, International schools, and Science High Schools. Also, several nationalities, such as the Chinese, British, Americans, and the Japanese also have their own schools. School year in the Philippines starts from June and ends in March with a two-month summer break from April to May, one week of semestral break (every last week of October), and a week or two of Christmas break.

Primary school is also called 'Elementary school'. It consists of six levels, with some schools adding an additional level (level 7). The levels are grouped into two primary subdivisions, Primary-level, which includes the first three levels, and Intermediate-level, which includes the last three levels.

Secondary education in the Philippines is largely based on the American schooling system. It consists of four levels. Secondary schooling is compartmentalized, meaning, each level focuses on a particular 'theme or content'. Secondary school is often called simply as 'High school', and as such, this will be the prevailing word in this section.

Tertiary schools in the Philippines are either colleges or universities. Colleges are tertiary institutions that typically offer one or a few specialized courses, for example, in Science or in Liberal Arts, whereas Universities are tertiary institutions housing several constituent colleges or institutes, each offering academic degree programs of a particular type (i.e., college of commerce, college of law, college of denstistry, college of education, etc.). All tertiary institutions, also called higher education institutions are licensed, controlled, and supervised by the Commission on Higher Education of the Philippines. Volunteer accrediting organizations such as the Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAASCU) exist to upgrade the standards of higher education in the country.

Hispanic influence on Filipino culture

The British historian Arnold J. Toynbee once asserted in one of his works that "the Philippines is a Latin American country that was transported to the Orient by a gigantic marine wave". Following over three centuries of Spanish colonization, the Philippines has a strong Hispanic cultural base, including exhibiting Spanish names and surnames, the Catholic religion, festivities, literature, music and cooking. The Spanish language was the original official language of the Philippines and at it's peak was spoken by 60% of the population as a first, second, or even third language in the early period of the 20th century.

Negrito and Austronesian peoples were the principal peoples of the Philippine archipelago. The Negritos and Austronesians migrated to the islands during the last ice age some 30,000 years ago, when land bridges connected the archipelago to mainland Asia. Later migrations were by water and took place over several thousand years.

The Philippines was ruled from Mexico City as a territory of New Spain, from 1565 to 1821 and as a province of Spain until 1898.

In the past few years, the Philippines has began to re-establish closer ties to its former colonial ruler, Spain. The King and Queen of Spain attended the Centennial celebration of Philippine Independence from Spain on June 12, 1998 in recognition of a shared history and cultural ties.

The Philippines is a predominantly Catholic country, with (83%) of the population baptized with the rites of the Roman Catholic Church. Roman Catholicism was introduced by the Spaniards. Friars and priests were in charge of converting the entire Filipino population from the previously practiced Islam and the many local native spiritual traditions to Christianity.

Many Filipinos at home set up altars in Hispanic Catholic fashion, adorned with icons, flowers, statues, etc. On feast days, various barrios host processions in honor of their patron saint. Many young girls are chosen as the 'queen' of the procession.

Filipino Family

It should be emphasized that the close familial ties are upheld to the highest extent. The primary social welfare system for the Filipino is the family. Many Filipinos live near their family for most of their lives, even as independent adults. A nuclear family is very common among Filipinos. When it comes to the divorce policy in the Philippines it is illegal. President Arroyo provides insight and believe it is "un-Filipino, immoral, unconstitutional and a danger to the Filipino family." Others point out that in the past that ancestral tribes did practice divorce and that the "reign of the Pope via the Spanish crown" to be the source of such laws.

Among great distances of the family, balikbayan boxes are transferred through vast distances as some are compelled to move to international territories. These overseas Filipinos send huge boxes called the balikbayan box to their families back in the motherland containing goods, gadgets and/or popular trendy items. They also bring balikbayan boxes when they return to their motherland on vacation to visit their family. Sometimes their families at the Philippines return the favor and send exotic food items only found in the Philippines or indigenous property expressing Filipino workmanship. It is another way to express cultural exchange and a way of helping out their families at home.

Courtship amongst the Filipino people is heavily influenced by Spanish and Roman Catholic traditions. Many parents disapprove of girls visiting boys' homes. Usually, the boy comes to the girl's house to formally introduce himself to her parents and family. The Filipino must win the Filipina's parents approval. At home, painful corporal punishment is almost always practiced among the Filipino family as children are often hit as a form of discipline. Filipinos use their belts, hands and canes to hit their children.

Major roads in Metro Manila

Metro Manila has a very extensive roadway system connecting the cities and municipalities of the metropolis and its surrounding provinces. The major roadways are the ten radial roads, braching from the capital city of Manila, and the five circumferential roads, which form semicircles around the city of Manila. It should be known that the Radial and Circumferential roads are not 'existing roads', per segment, but are labels that connect existing roads, so that they serve as guides. Some of the roads in Metro Manila are not yet paid to the government.

Begins as Del Pan in San Nicolas district. Del Pan becomes Bonifacio Drive after crossing the Pasig River. Bonifacio Drive is the major road of the Manila South Harbor, and of Intramuros, the walled city. It then continues on as President Manuel Roxas Boulevard, formerly known as Admiral Dewey Boulevard, which is famous for its grand hotels, exquisite yacht clubs, embassies, and most of all, the famed Manila sunset. The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines in English), Museo Pambata (Children's Museum in English), Manila Yacht Club, the Embassy of the United States of America, and various seaside restaurants are on this road. The said boulevard has been the target of the beautification project of Manila mayor Lito Atienza. R-1 then continues to skirt the Manila bay coastline of the cities of Pasay, Parañaque, and Las Pinas as the Manila-Cavite Expressway (formerly called Coastal Road and General Emilio Aguinaldo Highway). R-1 is the main road of the Ermita district of Manila, and connects it with Cavite province. In Cavite, it passes through Bacoor, Imus, Dasmarinas, Silang, and Tagaytay City. Its extension ends in Talisay, Batangas (in front and north of Taal Lake). The road has many zigzags.

Commences at the Manila City Hall in Intramuros as Antonio Villegas Road (Arroceros), passing through the Ermita and Malate districts. LRT-1 is built on this road. Taft Avenue houses many government offices, the Manila campus of the University of the Philippines (University of the Philippines, Manila), and the Philippine General Hospital. It is part of the Maharlika Highway. Also located on Taft Avenue are the Philippine Women's University, Philippine Christian University, and De La Salle University-Manila. R-2 continues on to Pasay City. Its major attraction in Pasay City is the Cartimar Pet Market, the hangout of many pet lovers. After crossing EDSA (C-4), it continues on as President Elpidio Quirino Highway, passing through Parañaque and Las Piñas, on to Bacoor town of Cavite, where it ends at R-1. R-2 is the main road of the Malate district of Manila, and connects it with Cavite province.

Evelio Javier

Evelio B. Javier (October 14, 1942 - February 11, 1986) was a Filipino lawyer, civil servant, politician, and an oppositionist during the authoritarian regime of President Ferdinand Marcos. Due to these activities, he was assassinated by the regime on February 11, 1986.

He ran for governor of Antique and won in 1971 making him, at the age of 28, the Phlippines' youngest governor during that decade. He did not run again for election in 1980, instead, he ran for Assemblyman at the Batasang Pambansa, but he lost. (Was declared by the Commission on elections as the real winner, unfortunately months after his death).

Evelio Javier was born on October 14, 1942, in Barangay Lanag (now Brgy. Evelio Javier), Hamtic, Antique, to Everardo Autajay Javier(Moscoso) and Feliza Bellaflor. He finished his grade school in San Jose Elementary School in San Jose, Antique and graduated high school and college in Ateneo de Manila University. There, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in History and Government and his Bachelor of Laws, and passed the bar examination before he became a successful lawyer and entered into politics.

He married Precious Bello Lotilla of Sibalom, Antique; they had two sons, Francis Gideon Everardo and David.

On the day of the funeral and burial to his final resting place at his hometown of San Jose de Buenavista, Antique, millions of mourning people in Antique followed his funeral procession to the cemetery wearing yellow shirts and tying yellow bands to their wrists. They played his favourite song, "The Impossible Dream," during the procession to the cemetery. Thousands of Antiquenos there showed their anger and sorrow by crying "Justice for Evelio! We love you!" on the day of his death.

History: Capture of Manila

On the evening of August 12, on orders of General Merritt, General Anderson notified Aguinaldo to forbid the Insurgents under his command from entering Manila. On 13 August, unaware of the peace protocol signing, U.S. forces assaulted and captured the Spanish positions in Manila. Insurgents made an independent attack of their own, as planned, which promptly led to trouble with the Americans. At 8 A.M. Aguinaldo received a telegram from General Anderson sternly warning him not to let his troops enter Manila without the consent of the American commander on the south side of the Pasig River. No attention was paid to General Anderson's request that the Insurgent troops should not enter Manila without permission. They crowded forward with and after the American forces and found American and Spanish troops confronting each other but not firing. A flag of truce was waving from the Spanish, nevertheless the insurgents fired on the Spanish forces, provoking a return fire which killed and wounded American soldiers.[16] General Anderson's losses in the taking of the city was nineteen men killed and one hundred and three wounded.[15] General Merrit received news of the peace protocol on August 16, three days after the surrender of Manila.

General Anderson, sent Aguinaldo a telegram, received by the latter at 6:35 P.M., as follows

“ Dated Ermita Headquarters 2nd Division 13 to Gen. Aguinaldo. Commanding Filipino Forces.--Manila, taken. Serious trouble threatened between our forces. Try and prevent it. Your troops should not force themselves in the city until we have received the full surrender then we will negotiate with you.
_Anderson_, commanding.

Native toys and games

Filipinos play card games styles such as pusoy and pusoy dos. These games use poker suits. Pusoy is described to be the 3-5-5 or good-better-best variant of the game. Pusoy dos is described to be variant where one tries to get rid of all his cards by choosing poker hands wisely. The origin of pusoy came from Chinese pai gow blended with poker and the origin of pusoy dos came from coastal China around 1980.

Filipinos play sungka, a board game consisting of small sea shells which players try to take all shells but the winner is determined by who has the most shells at the point were all small pits become empty. This is an Asian game that westerners first observed in 1894.

Filipinos are creative in that they have made toys using insects such as tying a beetle to string and sweeping it circular rotation to make an interesting sound. Salagubang gong is a toy is described by Harvard entomologist Charles Brtjes in his trip to Negros illustrating a toy using beetles to create a periodic gong effect on the kerosene can as the beetle rotates above the contraption.

Filipino games can also include piko, patintero, jack-en-poy, bang!, bahay-kubo, nanay-tatay, and many more. Many children enjoy these games.

Sipa is the national sports in the Philippines. Other popular recreational sports include boxing, patintero, billiards, basketball, chess, ten-pin bowling and football. Boxing, billiards, basketball and soccer are popular among Filipinos. The Philippine Basketball Association (PBA) was founded in 1975. Dodge ball or mistakenly called as "touch ball" is also a favorite sport of those who play in schools during break time.

The sports where the Filipinos have gained international successes are boxing, billiards (notably nine ball), ten-pin bowling, chess and football (soccer). Notable champions include Paulino Alcántara, Francisco Pancho Villa, Manny Pacquiao, Mansueto Velasco, Flash Elorde, Efren Reyes, Francisco Bustamante, Rafael Nepomuceno and Eugene Torre.


Saranggola (international title: The Kite) is a 1999 Filipino film directed by Gil Portes, starring Ricky Davao, Lester Llansang and Jennifer Sevilla and produced by GMA Films and Teamwork Productions. It is a chilling morality tale, showing murder and corruption through the eyes of a child.

Though widowed ex-cop Homer (Ricky Davao) is a kindly father to his ten-year old son Rex (Lester Llansang), he is considered to be something of a bully in the poor Manila neighborhood that he lives. After mistaking a child retrieving a snarled kite for a burglar, Homer kills the boy and then hurriedly tries to cover up his error. Unbeknownst to his dad, Rex witnessed the event, too. As the two separately wrestle with their consciences, the neighbors find out and chaos soon ensues.

In 2000, the film won the FAMAS Best Child Actor Award (Lester Llansang) and was nominated for four more awards (Best Picture, Best Director, Best Screenplay and Best Actor (Ricky Davao)) at the FAMAS Awards. It also won the Gawad Urian Award for Best Actor (Ricky Davao) and was nominated for 5 more awards at the 2000 Gawad Urian Awards. In the same year it won the Original Screenplay of the Year (Gil Portes and Butch Dalisay) and the Actor of the Year (Ricky Davao) and was nominated for 3 more awards at the Star Awards for Movies.

The film was also the Philippines' official entry to: the Academy Awards (Oscars); the 2000 Young Artists Award, where it was nominated for Best International Film and Best Performance in an International Film (Lester Llansang); the 2000 Indian Film Festival; and other international film festivals.

Pinoy Pop Superstar

Pinoy Pop Superstar was a Philippine television show featuring a year-long talent search for the best Filipino amateur singers. It was broadcast every Saturday evening on GMA. The format is loosely patterned on the international Idol show series.

The program was hosted by Asia's Songbird Regine Velasquez who is an amateur singing contest veteran. In the 2006 Star Awards for Television, Velasquez was awarded the "Best Talent Search Program Host" for the show.

The planned name for this program is Pinoy Pop Idol, but because this program was an unlicensed version of American Idol, GMA Network had decided to change it to Pinoy Pop Superstar.

On the third season, however, there had become new rules. After the three contenders sing their songs on their own rendition, the second round would force them to sing their song, but not in their music type. For the weekly winner of four consecutive weeks, he or she will qualify for the prelimination showdown. The remaining finalists will compete for the grand showdown.

Rules were then again changed after the Pinoy Pop Superstar Year 3 Special: Fast Forward to Superstardom (this special consists of 12 wildcard finalists wherein Joyce Tanana won). On the first round, six contenders sing their song prior to their capacity and genre. Three of them will be eliminated due to their average scores. On the second round, the remaining three contenders will sing a different kind/genre of song. The weekly challenger will then compete with the defending winner. The winner shall defend his/her for four consecutive weeks (this time the defending winner can only reign his/her title for four weeks). The gathered finalists will then compete for the grand showdown.

Sambal people

The Sambal (Spanish: zambales) are a Filipino ethnic group living primarily in the province of Zambales, the city of Olongapo, and the Pangasinense municipalities of Bolinao and Anda.

The Sambal are the original Austronesian inhabitants of the province of Zambales and the city of Olongapo in the Philippines. They speak Tina, Bolinao, or Botolan, all of which are Sambalic languages. The Sambalic languages are most closely related to Kapampangan and to an archaic form of Tagalog still spoken in Tanay in the province of Rizal. This has been interpreted to mean that the Sambal originated from that area, later being displaced by migrating Tagalogs from Marinduque around 600 BC, pushing the original inhabitants northward to what is now the province of Zambales, in turn, displacing the Aetas.

The Spanish, in their first encouters with the Sambal, supposedly found them to be highly superstitious and who worshipped the spirits of their ancestors. To this day, most Sambal still believe in superstitions and mysteries.

Like the Moros, the culture and customs of the Sambal are different from that of neighboring groups. This is evident in their traditional dress, which consists of a single-shoulder short-sleeved shirt, paired with short trousers. Usually worn at the chest and shoulder areas of the shirt are badges that resemble multicolored crosses. The way they do their hair is also different. They shave off half of their head at the front, the remaining hair flowing from the top of the skull and hanging at the nape, and making their foreheads look wider.


A kalesa (sometimes called a karitela) is a horse-driven calash (carriage) used in the Philippines. The word, also spelled calesa, predates the Spanish conquest and descends ultimately from an Old Church Slavonic word meaning "wheels." This was one of the modes of transportation introduced in the Philippines in the 18th century by the Spaniards that only nobles and high ranked officials could afford. They are rarely used in the streets nowadays except in tourist spots and some rural areas.

Levi Celerio, a National Artist of the Philippines in music, composed a song entitled "Kalesa".

When the kalesa was introduced in the 18th century during the Spanish occupation, it became one of the modes of transportation in the Philippines, especially for commerce. Rich Filipinos known as the ilustrados used the kalesa for personal travel as well as for the transport of goods to nearby areas.

Although the kalesa has become a rarity, some century-old examples are still preserved in areas of the Philippines, such as the city of Vigan. Kalesas can also be found in Intramuros and Binondo in the city of Manila and also in Iligan City, which has a street where decorated kalesas can be taken for a ride.

Death customs in the Philippines

Death in the Philippines is one of the most important occasions in family life, as attested to by a humorous statement that families have large reunions only during "Binyag, Kasal at Libing" ("Baptisms, Weddings and Burials/Funerals"). Once a Filipino dies, it is traditional to hold a wake. Deceased men are dressed in the traditional Barong Tagalog while women are dressed in either black dresses or in their best dress. Relatives that are closer to the deceased are customarily dressed in black, while women use black veils, similar to their Latin American counterparts. Caskets of Filipinos are often covered with glass, with the inner part of the lid containg ribbons with the names of the deceased person's immediate family. The casket has a crucifix between two candles (nowadays "candles" with electric bulbs) behind it. Flowers are often given in condolence to the family, with a message from the donor written on a ribbon attached to the flowers. Family members keep vigil, pray, eat, talk and socialize with guests. It is traditional, as with the other aspects of Philippine culture, to be hospitable to the guests; this is done by offering food and refreshments to those mourning with the family. After the death of a person, a nine-day period of having a novena of prayers and Masses offered up for the deceased is held, although the beginning of the Pasiyam varies, but usually ends the week after the death. Another period follows after death, the 40-day mourning period. Family members usually indicate their state of bereavement by wearing a small, black, rectangular plastic pin on their left breast or breast pocket area. A Mass is held at the end of this 40 day period. Common belief states that the soul goes to Heaven after these 40 days, following the belief that Jesus Christ ascended to Heaven after the said period of days. The 1st year death anniversary is also a bit significant, as well as the subsequent birth anniversaries of the deceased. Relatives from foreign lands would also come home to mourn for the deceased. Women are seen wearing black clothings and veils during a funeral. Widows are seen wearing black attires for the whole year.

Ancient Relations with China

From scanty records that have come down to the present, it is known that the Philippines had some commercial relations with the neighboring countries, particularly with China. Trade relations with the latter started in the 9th century when some Arab traders who were barred from the Central China coast found an alternative route starting from Malacca and passing through Borneo, the Philippines, and Taiwan.

Goods from Southeast Asia and the Western world were carried by the Arab traders to the Philippines through the southern route. Philippine goods, on the other hand, were brought by Arab ships to the Chinese mainland through the port of Canton.
During the rule of the Sung Dynasty (960-1127) in China, Chinese goods began to flow in a continuous stream into the Philippines. Chinese colonies were founded in the coastal towns of the archipelago. During the Ming period (1368-1644), other colonies were established in the hinterland.

History of Philippine Islam

The spread of Islam to Old Malaysia was brought about by the activities of the Arab traders, missionaries, and teachers who introduced their religious beliefs among the Malays. The foundation od Islam was laid in Malaysia by the Arabian scholar Mudum, who arrived in the Malay Peninsula about the middle of the 14th century. He succeeded in establishing in Malacca a rather tenous foothold for Islam.

About 1380, he proceeded to Sulu and preached the doctrines of Mohammed. In 1390, Raja Baginda, one of the petty rulers of Menangkabaw, Sumatra, arrived in Sulu anf promptly converted some of the natives to Islam. His religious activities were followed by Abu Bakr who, about 1450m left Palembang for Sulu. He married Rajah Baginda's daughter. Paramisuli. After Baginda's death, Abu Bakr exercised his powers as Sultan and established a government patterned after the Sultanate of Arabia. Islam spread rapidly to all parts of Sulu.

In Mindanao, Serif Kabungsuan, who had meanwhile arrived from Johore with his men, immediately began laying the foundation of Islam. He converted many tribes to his religion and having married into influential family, made himselt the first Sultan of Mindanao. From then on, Islam spread rapidly to the Visayas and Luzon.

Philippines was never a part of Mainland China

Up to the early 1970's it haf been assumed that the Philippines was a part of the mainland China. It was theorized that during the Pleistocene or Ice Age, the waters surrounding what is now the Philippines fell about 156 feet below the present levels. As a result, a vast area of land was exposed and became sort of land bridges to the mainland of Asia. In February, 1976, howeverm this theory of the "land bridges" to Asia was disputed by Dr. Fritjof Voss, a German scientist who studied the geology of the Philippines. According to Dr. Voss, the Philippines was never a part of the mainland of Asia but that it rose from the Bottom of the sea and "continues to rise as the thin Pacific crust moves below it."

As proof that the Philippines was never a part of the Asian mainland, Dr. Voss points to the fact when scientific studies were done in 1964-67 on the thickness of the earth's crust it was found out that the 35-kilometer thick crust underneath China does not extend to the Philippines. Hence, the latter could not have been a part or "land bridge" to the mainland Asia. On the other hand, the Philippines lies "along the great earth faults extending to deep undersea trenches" and so through violent earthquakes what is now the Philippines rose to the surface of the sea.

Baybayin or Alibata

Baybayin or Alibata (known in Unicode as the Tagalog script) is a pre-Hispanic Philippine writing system that originated from the Javanese script Old Kawi. The writing system is a member of the Brahmic family (and an offshoot of the Vatteluttu alphabet) and is believed to be in use as early as the 14th century. It continued to be in use during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines up until the late 19th Century. The term baybayin literally means syllables. Closely related scripts are Hanunóo, Buhid, and Tagbanwa.

Baybayin or Alibata

Baybayin or Alibata (known in Unicode as the Tagalog script) is a pre-Hispanic Philippine writing system that originated from the Javanese script Old Kawi. The writing system is a member of the Brahmic family (and an offshoot of the Vatteluttu alphabet) and is believed to be in use as early as the 14th century. It continued to be in use during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines up until the late 19th Century. The term baybayin literally means syllables. Closely related scripts are Hanunóo, Buhid, and Tagbanwa.

Baybayin or Alibata

Baybayin or Alibata (known in Unicode as the Tagalog script) is a pre-Hispanic Philippine writing system that originated from the Javanese script Old Kawi. The writing system is a member of the Brahmic family (and an offshoot of the Vatteluttu alphabet) and is believed to be in use as early as the 14th century. It continued to be in use during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines up until the late 19th Century. The term baybayin literally means syllables. Closely related scripts are Hanunóo, Buhid, and Tagbanwa.

Orang Dampuan

Between 900 and 1200 A.D. another group of the immigrants came to the Philippines from southern Annam. Known as Orang Dampuan or Men from Champa, they established trading posts in Sulu, resulting in a flourishing trade between Sulu and Southern Annam.

The Orang Dampuans were not politically minded and had no intention of dominating of people of SUlu, who were called Buranuns. Their interest lay in trade. As usually happened, the Orang Dampuans, because of their increasing prosperity, aroused the jealousy of the Buranuns who, in a fit of anger, massacred some Orang Dampuans. The latter, who had superior weapons, took their bloddy revenge on the Buranuns and, having leveled the enemy's villages to the ground, sailed to their homeland. It was not until the 13th century that the Orang Dampuans returned to Sulu to trade peacefully with the natives.

Filipino folk music

Traditional Music in the Philippines, the traditional music of other countries, reflects the life of common folk, mainly living in rural areas rather than urban ones. Like its counterparts in Asia, a lot of traditional songs from the Philippines have a strong connection with nature. However, much of it employs the diatonic scale rather than the more famous pentatonic scale.

Like the culture of the country itself, traditional Philippine music is a melting pot of the country's historic past. Philippine Traditional Music is influenced by all the music that was ever brought there, so it is not surprising that it may sometimes sound as 'Chinese' as it is 'Indian' or even 'European'.

Like the people who use it, Traditional Music in the Philippines is either Western or non-Western. And while having more subdivisions, each form will surely reflect the culture of a specific group. Through its Traditional Music, one can clearly see how Filipinos have a deep reverence to God, close family ties, and pay attention to nature.

Vocal music to be the most important form of music found in every ethnic group in the country. Although there is some music intended for dance, the best form of preserved traditional music is those intended for the voice.

According to the book Philippine Literature: Folk Songs by Mauricia Borromeo, folk songs from the country may be divided into Western-Type Folk songs, Narrative Psalm, and Secular Songs from the Indigenous Groups.

President of the Philippines

The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. The President of the Philippines in Filipino is referred to as Ang Pangulo or Pangulo ("Presidente," informally). The executive power is vested in the President of the Philippines.

The current incumbent President as of February 3, 2008 is Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.

Under Article 7, Section 2 of the Philippine Constitution, In order to serve as President, an individual must be at least 40 years of age, a registered voter, able to read and write, a Filipino citizen by birth, and a resident of the Philippines for at least 10 years prior to election.

The official title of the president is the "President of the Philippines," as specified in the present Constitution of the Philippines (1987). The honorific for the President of the Philippines is "Your Excellency" or "His/Her Excellency", adopted from the title of the Governor-General of the Philippines during Spanish and American occupation. The term "President of the Republic of the Philippines" is commonly, but erroneously, used, dating back to when President José P. Laurel wanted to express the difference between his government and the previous Commonwealth government (then in exile) under President Manuel L. Quezon. The restoration of the Commonwealth in 1945 and the subsequent independence of the Philippines led to the restoration of the constitutionally-sanctioned title "President of the Philippines" until President Ferdinand E. Marcos proclaimed martial law and once more wanted to differentiate his government from those that came before. It was then that "President of the Republic of the Philippines" was adopted and indeed, specified in the 1973 Constitution of the Philippines. However, that Constitution was superseded by a new one in 1987 which restored the more traditional "President of the Philippines."

Arts of the Philippines

The arts of the Philippines are influenced by the traditions of Europe, America, China and native Austronesian cultures.

Weaving is popular in the northern mountain Filipinos. Pottery was also common in pre-Hispanic societies. Ornate carvings are found in the southern Philippine islands. Similarly, wooden art is also quite popular and is displayed in various parts of the home.

Artistic paintings created by Filipinos began in the 17th century during Spanish colonial times and continued until the present, with such revered artists as Luna, Amorsolo, and Zobel. Other popular artists include Hugo C. Yunzon reflecting an earthy style that touches on indigenous Malay culture in pieces such as Early Risers and Mariang Makiling, Nestor Leynes with Mag-ina Sa Banig, and Tam Austria with Mag-Anak.

Kut-kut is an art technique used between the 15th and 18th centuries. The technique was a combination of European and Oriental style and process mastered by indigenous tribes of Samar island.

Notable Philipino artists include Juan Luna, Fernando Amorsolo, Augusto Arbizo, Fred DeAsis, Felix Hidalgo, Dávid Cortés Medalla, Rey Paz Contreras, and Nunelucio Alvarado.

Filipinos have unique folk dances like tinikling where assistants take two long bamboo sticks rapidly and rhythmatically clap sticks for dancers to artistically and daringly try to avoid getting their feet smashed between them. Also in the southern part of the Philippines, there is another dance called singkil using long bamboo poles found in tinikling; however, it is primarily a dance showing off lavish Muslim royalty. In this dance, there are four bamboo sticks arranged in a tic-tac-toe pattern in which the dancers exploit every position of these clashing sticks. Dancers can be found trying to avoid all 4 bamboo sticks all together in the middle. They can also try to dance an entire rotation around the middle avoiding all sticks. Usually these stick dances performed in teamwork fashion not solo. The Singkil dance is identifiable with the use of umbrellas and silk clothing. See YouTube tinikling video and YouTube singkil video.

Two examples of traditional Filipino dances are Tinikling and Binasuan.

Tanaga is a type of Filipino poetry.

Panagbenga Festival

Panagbenga is week-long annual flower festival occurring in Baguio, the summer capital of the Philippines. The term is of Malayo-Polynesian origin, meaning "season of blooming". The festival was created as a tribute to the city's flowers and as a way to rise up from the devastation of the 1990 Luzon earthquake. The festival includes floats that are decorated with flowers that are not unlike those used in Pasadena's Rose Parade. The festival also include street dancing, presented by dancers clad in flower-inspired costumes, that is inspired by the Bendian, an Ibaloi dance of celebration the came from thr Cordillera region.

Aside from economic boosts from tourism, the festival also helped the younger generation of indigenous people to rediscover their cultures' old traditions. The indigenous people was first wary with government-led tourism because of the threat that they will interfere or change their communities' rituals.

On 2007, Members of the Team Unity and other candidates from the opposition gave their political campaign in the festival. All the candidates broke the festival's guidelines by handing out campaign materials. Some tourists were displeased of their presence as people that wanted to take pictures with the candidates spilled over the streets and disrupted the parade.

Economy of the Philippines

The Philippines is a newly industrialized country in South-East Asia. In 2004, it was ranked as the 25th largest economy by the World Bank according to purchasing power parity. It is the fastest-growing economy in Southeast Asia, posting a GDP growth rate of 7.3% in the year 2007, its fastest pace in three decades and has been compared to the economy of India in its sudden and rapid growth.

On January 31, 2008, Philippine 2007 GDP grew 7.3%, the fastest in 31 years: its economy grew seasonally adjusted 1.8%, faster than expected in the 4th quarter; Frederic Neumann, HSBC economist stated that: "Evidently economic momentum is very strong, therefore if we see a slowdown in economic growth, it would only materialise in the second half of the year. We therefore see a reduced need for the central bank to cut rates aggressively now and we might see that today with a 25 basis point cut."

The industrial sector is concentrated in the urban areas, especially in the metropolitan Manila region and has only weak linkages to the rural economy. Inadequate infrastructure, transportation and communication have so far inhibited faster industrial growth.

The majority of the top ten BPO firms of the United States operate in the Philippines. Total jobs in the industry grew to 100,000 and total revenues are placed at $960 million for 2005.

Transport of people, goods and services in the country is done mostly by motorized vehicles, boats and planes. Land transportation vehicles are imported, except for the jeepney and tricycle which are locally made.

GUMIL Filipinas

GUMIL Filipinas (Gunglo dagiti Mannurat nga Ilokano iti Filipinas) or Ilokano Writers Association of the Philippines, is one of the most active group of regional writers in the Philippines. It has hundreds of active writer-members in provincial and municipal chapters as well as in overseas chapters in the mainland U.S. and Hawaii and in Greece.

In 1967, GUMIL Pangasinan was organized, with Mauro F. Guico, a public school principal, as president.

On October 19, 1968, GUMIL Filipinas (Ilokano Writers Association of the Philippines) was organized in Baguio City. Arturo M. Padua, then municipal mayor of Sison, Pangasinan, was elected president. The officers took their oath of office before President Ferdinand E. Marcos.

GUMIL Filipinas or Gunglo dagiti Mannurat nga Ilokano iti Filipinas, Inc., was incorporated and registered with the Philippine Securities and Exchange Commission on January 8, 1977.

Benito S. de Castro, in his feature article in Bannawag magazine on February 29, 1988, said the Gimong dagiti Mannurat nga Ilokano (Ilokano Writers Association) was also organized in 1947 with Benjamin A. Gray elected as president. Its main purpose was to preserve Iloko, to encourage and improve how to write better Iloko, and to publish the members' best Iloko writings.

In the 1960s, Kutibeng (Lyre), an association of Iloko writers in Manila and suburbs, was organized. Pacifico D. Espanto was elected president.

Teatro Pilipino

Teatro Pilipino is a theatre company based in Manila in the Philippines.

After a 1975 pilot season of two plays sponsored by the Department of Public Information and the Cultural Center of the Philippines, Teatro Pilipino was founded in 1976 by director-actor Rolando Tinio, who became its artistic director. It served as CCP resident company until 1986. It closed in February 1992, after the death of its leading actor, Ella Luansing. Dedicated to producing world classics in translation as well as notable Filipino plays, it aimed to promote the cultural development of the youth and of the Filipino language.

Artists who worked with Teatro Pilipino from 1976 to 1992 include Nestor U. Torre, Tony Mabesa, Ernie Garcia, Celeste Legaspi, Tommy Abuel, Edgar Oira, Rey Malte-Cruz, Divina Cavestany, Marcelino Cavestany, Nomer Son, Frankie Aseniero, Angie Ferro, Nanding Josef, Tony Espejo, and Victoria Tinio.

As resident theater company of CCP, Teatro produced six plays per season, each with a run of eight performances at the CCP Little Theater (now a Tanghalang Aurelio V. Tolentino). When it transferred to the Metropolitan Theater in 1986, Teatro produced one major production at the MET Main Theater in its season, and a touring production. These productions were synchronized with the scholar calendar.

Staging plays of many European playwrights, Teatro’s productions included Anton Chekhov’s Tiyo Vanya (Uncle Vanya), 1976; Alexei Arbusov’s Kawawang Marat (The Promise), 1976; Giuseppe Verdi’s La Traviata, 1976; G. Bernard Shaw’s Santa Juana (St. Joan), 1977; Henrik Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler, 1977; Tennessee Williams' Laruang Kristal (Glass Menagerie), 1979; William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, 1979; Albert Camus’ Caligula, 1981; Shakespeare’s Romeo at Julieta (Romeo and Juliet), 1981; Jean Anouilh’s Antigone, 1982; Chekhov’s Seagull, 1982; Ugo Betti’s Ang Reyna at ang Rebelde (The Queen and the Rebels), 1983; Bertolt Brecht’s Ang Mabuting Tao ng Setzuan (The Good Woman of Setzuan), 1983; Euripides’ Medea, 1988 and Shakespeare’s Makbet (Macbeth), 1989.