Cebuano grammar

Pronouns are inflected in person, number, and case. They do not make gender distinctions: he and she are both translated in Cebuano as siya.

The four cases are nominative, preposed genitive, postposed genitive, and oblique.

Cebuano, like most other Austronesian languages, makes use of the inclusive and exclusive we. This distinction, not found in most European languages, signifies whether or not the addressee is included in the pronoun "we."

Cebuano nouns are of two classes: personal and general. Personal nouns refers to persons or personified objects and animals and vocative names. General nouns are others than that. Nouns do not change their spelling as they change case as in pronouns but are introduced by case markers intead.

The first case that has to be learned is the kinsa (nominative) case also called the absolutive case. This case is the topic case. The topic can easily identified most of the time by looking for the word or term introduced by the nominative case marker. The nominative case marker for personal nouns is "si" and the nominative case marker for general nouns is "ang".

Cebuano verbs act as predicate or words that tell about the subject or the topic. This topic can either be the doer of the action, the recipient of the action, the purpose for the action, or the means by which the action was made possible. The form of the verb is dependent on the function of the topic in relation to said verb. Some Cebuano grammarians call it focus of the verb but some others call it voice.